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Advanced Industrial Hydraulics Training Course

Course Length: 16 hours

Purpose: This course reviews the operation of hydraulic theory, controls, components, and applications through the use of hands-on training equipment and is recommended for personnel who are involved with basic maintenance and repair of hydraulic components and equipment.

The training course is designed to combine classroom lecture and the use of table top training equipment to demonstrate hydraulic operation, component setup and circuit design.

Upon completion of this course and with the use of the training manual, students will be able to:

  • Describe and explain hydraulic theory.
  • Describe and explain how pressure and force are considered in the design and operation of hydraulic operation.
  • Describe and demonstrate the principles of fluid flow in hydraulic circuits.
  • Identify and describe different hydraulic components.
  • Describe hydraulic circuit operation.
  • Identify basic hydraulic troubleshooting procedures.

Table of Contents

Section 1.0 OVERVIEW
Introduction 1-1
Fluid Power 1-1
Participant Materials 1-1
Objectives 1-1
Industrial Safety 1-1
Accidents 1-2
Near-Accident 1-2
Accident Prevention 1-2
The People Factor 1-3
Lessons Learned 1-3
Stored Energy System Safety 1-3
Locking Out 1-4
Restoring System Integrity 1-4
Summary 1-5

Introduction 2-1
Advantages of Fluid Power 2-1
Transmission of Forces Through Fluids 2-2
Pascal’s Law 2-3
Force and Pressure 2-5
Force and Pressure in Fluid Power Systems 2-6
Multiplication of Forces 2-7
Differential Areas 2-9
Volume and Distance Factors 2-10
Work and Energy 2-14
Fluid Flow 2-15
Volume and Velocity of Flow 2-16
Steady and Unsteady Flow 2-17
Streamline and Turbulent Flow 2-17
Factors Involved in Flow 2-19
Minimizing Friction 2-22
Advantages of Fluid Power Systems 2-22
Fluid Power Symbols 2-23

Section 3.0 FLUID SYSTEM
Introduction 3-1
Regulators 3-1
Piston vs. Diaphragm Controls 3-2
Non-venting vs. Venting Regulators 3-4
Spring vs. Pilot-controlled Regulators 3-5
Valves (Non-directional Control) 3-6
Manually Operated Valves 3-6
Check Valves 3-9
Solenoid-operated Valves 3-11
Directional Control Valves 3-15
Control Valve Element 3-16
Two-way Valves 3-17
Three-way Valves 3-18
Four-way Valves 3-19
Servo and Proportional Valves 3-25
Five-way Valves 3-28
Installation Requirements 3-28
Flow Controls 3-28
Pressure-compensated Flow Controls 3-28
Temperature-compensated Flow Control 3-30
Meter-in 3-32
Meter-out 3-32
Intensifier 3-32
Cylinders/Actuators 3-33
Ram-type Cylinders 3-33
Cushioned Cylinders 3-39
Fluid Pumps, Motors, and Compressors 3-39
Centrifugal Pumps 3-40
Positive Displacement Pumps 3-40
Hydraulic Liquids 3-74
Types of Hydraulic Liquids 3-78
Piping and Connectors 3-79
Rigid Piping 3-81
Semi-rigid (Metallic Tubing) 3-82
Nonmetallic Tubing 3-83
Tube Fittings 3-84
Hoses 3-86
Sealing Devices 3-87
Materials 3-88
Seal Designs 3-89
Wipers and Backup Washers 3-93
Hydraulic Reservoirs 3-96
Non-pressurized Reservoirs 3-97
Pressurized Reservoirs 3-98
Accumulators 3-99
Weight-loaded Type 3-99
Air or Gas-type 3-101
Summary 3-105

Introduction 4-1
Basic Hydraulic System 4-1
Sample Schematics 4-2
Basic Workstation 4-2
Advanced Workstation 4-3
Multimode Circuit 4-5
Determining Causes of Failures 4-6
Understanding the System 4-7
Troubleshooting Procedures 4-7
Locating Troubles 4-7
Operating Manuals 4-8
Checking Supply Systems 4-9
Troubleshooting an Actuator 4-11
Checking a Control Valve 4-11
Checking a Control Valve Actuator 4-12
Checking Sequence Valves 4-13
Checking Master Control Valves 4-13
Making Final Adjustments 4-14
Hydraulic System Troubleshooting 4-14
Common Causes of Failure 4-14
Dirt 4-14
Heat 4-15
Misapplication 4-15
Improper Fluids 4-15
Maintenance 4-16
Improper Design or Installation 4-16
Summary 4-17

Lab Exercises:
Lab Exercise #1: Hydraulic Trainer Familiarization A-1
Lab Exercise #2: Hydraulic Trainer Operation A-3
Lab Exercise #3: Force In Hydraulic Systems A-4
Lab Exercise #4: Flow Rate In Hydraulic Systems A-6
Lab Exercise #5: Hydraulic Fluid Flow Resistance A-8
Lab Exercise #6: Hydraulic Fluids A-11
Lab Exercise #7: Hydraulic Pumps A-14
Lab Exercise #8: Pressure Control Devices A-15
Lab Exercise #9: Manual Control Valves A-17
Lab Exercise #10: Check Valves A-19
Lab Exercise #11: Needle Valves A-21
Lab Exercise #12: Hydraulic Cylinders A-23
Lab Exercise #13: Hydraulic Flow Control Valves A-24
Lab Exercise #14: Paired Cylinders In A Circuit A-25
Lab Exercise #15: Hydraulic Jack Operation A-27

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