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Fluid Power Fundamentals Training Course (MP-10001)

Course Length: 24 hours

Purpose: This course provides comprehensive discussion of the applications of Fluid Power Fundamentals (MP-10001) as they apply to hydraulic and pneumatic systems. Hands-on training is accomplished through the use of component cutaways and tabletop trainers.

This process allows the students to see fluid power in action and to perform setups of fulcrums, levers, and timing circuits. This course is taught by highly qualified instructors who are experts in this field. The course covers basic fluid power fundamentals including theory, component operation, and fluid power circuits.

This course is recommended for personnel involved in the basic maintenance and repair of pneumatic and/or hydraulic equipment.

Objectives: Upon completion of this course and with the use of the training manual, students will be able to:

  • Describe fluid power and the components used in the design of pneumatic and hydraulic systems.
  • Identify and explain common hydraulic and pneumatic components.
  • Describe basic hydraulic and pneumatic theory.
  • Replace hoses, seals, and fittings according to the guidelines identified in this training course.
  • Explain common circuit applications.
  • Describe preventive maintenance actions such as removing, replacing, and cleaning common fluid power components.
  • Interpret ANSI symbols and drawings to explain the functions of specific hydraulic and pneumatic systems.
  • Troubleshoot common hydraulic and pneumatic components.

Table of Contents

Introduction 1-1
Fluid Power 1-1
Participant Materials 1-1
Objectives 1-1
Industrial Safety 1-1
Accidents 1-2
Near-Accident 1-2
Accident Prevention 1-2
The People Factor 1-3
Lessons Learned 1-3
Stored Energy System Safety 1-3
Locking Out 1-4
Restoring System Integrity 1-4
Summary 1-5

Introduction 2-1
Objectives 2-1
Advantages of Fluid Power 2-1
Transmission of Forces Through Fluids 2-2
Pascal’s Law 2-4
Force and Pressure 2-5
Force and Pressure in Fluid Power Systems 2-7
Multiplication of Forces 2-8
Differential Areas 2-10
Volume and Distance Factors 2-11
Compressibility and Expansion of Gases 2-11
Boyle’s Law 2-11
Charles’ Law 2-13
General Gas Law 2-14
Work and Energy 2-15
Fluid Flow 2-16
Volume and Velocity of Flow 2-17
Steady and Unsteady Flow 2-18
Streamline and Turbulent Flow 2-18
Factors Involved in Flow 2-20
Minimizing Friction 2-23
Advantages of Fluid Power Systems 2-24
Fluid Power Symbols 2-25

Introduction 3-1
Regulators 3-1
Piston vs. Diaphragm Controls 3-2
Nonventing vs. Venting Regulators 3-4
Spring vs. Pilot-Controlled Regulators 3-5
Valves (Nondirectional Control) 3-6
Manually Operated Valves 3-6
Check Valves 3-9
Solenoid-Operated Valves 3-11
Directional Control Valves 3-15
Control Valve Element 3-16
Two-Way Valves 3-17
Three-Way Valves 3-18
Four-Way Valves 3-19
Servo and Proportional Valves 3-25
Five-Way Valves 3-28
Installation Requirements 3-28
Flow Controls 3-28
Pressure-Compensated Flow Controls 3-28
Temperature-Compensated Flow Control 3-30
Meter-in 3-32
Meter-out 3-32
Intensifier 3-32
Cylinders/Actuators 3-33
Ram-Type Cylinders 3-33
Piston-Type Cylinders 3-35
Cushioned Cylinders 3-39
Fluid Pumps, Motors, and Compressors 3-39
Centrifugal Pumps 3-40
Positive Displacement Pumps 3-40
Air Compressors 3-48
Limited Rotation Actuators 3-54
Purification Equipment 3-56
Preliminary Filtering 3-56
Moisture Removal/Drying 3-60
Additional Filtering 3-67
Lubrication 3-71
Hydraulic Liquids 3-74
Types of Hydraulic Liquids 3-78
Piping and Connectors 3-79
Rigid Piping 3-81
Semirigid (Metallic Tubing) 3-82
Nonmetallic Tubing 3-83
Tube Fittings 3-84
Hoses 3-86
Sealing Devices 3-87
Materials 3-88
Seal Designs 3-89
Wipers and Backup Washers 3-93
Air Receivers 3-95
Hydraulic Reservoirs 3-96
Nonpressurized Reservoirs 3-97
Pressurized Reservoirs 3-98
Accumulators 3-99
Weight-Loaded Type 3-99
Air or Gas Type 3-101
Summary 3-105

Introduction 4-1
Basic Hydraulic System 4-1
Sample Schematics 4-2
Basic Workstation 4-2
Advanced Workstation 4-3
Multimode Circuit 4-5
Determining Causes of Failures 4-6
Understanding the System 4-7
Troubleshooting Procedures 4-7
Locating Troubles 4-7
Operating Manuals 4-8
Checking Supply Systems 4-9
Troubleshooting an Actuator 4-9
Checking a Control Valve 4-10
Checking a Control Valve Actuator 4-11
Checking Sequence Valves 4-11
Checking Master Control Valves 4-12
Making Final Adjustments 4-13
Hydraulic System Troubleshooting 4-13
Common Causes of Failure 4-13
Dirt 4-13
Heat 4-14
Misapplication 4-14
Improper Fluids 4-14
Maintenance 4-15
Improper Design or Installation 4-15
Summary 4-16

Appendix A — Pneumatic Lab Exercises
Lab Exercise 1: Trainer Familiarization
Lab Exercise 2: Pressure Regulators
Lab Exercise 3: Needle (Throttle) Valves
Lab Exercise 4: Flowmeters
Lab Exercise 5: Solenoid Directional Controls
Lab Exercise 6: Air Piloted Directional Control Valves
Lab Exercise 7: Air Line Lubrication
Lab Exercise 8: Air Filtration
Lab Exercise 9: Venturi Vacuum Generators
Lab Exercise 10: Pneumatic Cylinders 

Appendix B — Hydraulic Lab Exercises
Lab Exercise 1: Hydraulic Trainer Familiarization
Lab Exercise 2: Hydraulic Trainer Operation
Lab Exercise 3: Force in Hydraulic Systems
Lab Exercise 4: Flow Rate in Hydraulic Systems
Lab Exercise 5: Hydraulic Fluid Flow Resistance
Lab Exercise 6: Hydraulic Fluids
Lab Exercise 7: Hydraulic Pumps
Lab Exercise 8: Pressure Control Devices
Lab Exercise 9: Manual Control Valves
Lab Exercise 10: Check Valves
Lab Exercise 11: Needle Valves
Lab Exercise 12: Hydraulic Cylinders
Lab Exercise 13: Hydraulic Flow Control Valves
Lab Exercise 14: Paired Cylinders in a Circuit
Lab Exercise 15: Hydraulic Jack Operation 

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